Once the diagnosis of diabetes is established in a pregnant woman, continued testing for glycemic control and diabetic complications is indicated for the remainder of the pregnancy. To some extent, this involves the more intensive use of studies that are part of normal prenatal care (eg, ultrasonography).
During the first trimester of pregnancy, women with diabetes should undergo testing (in addition to normal prenatal laboratory tests) for HbA1C, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free thyroxine levels, as well as spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio and capillary blood sugar levels 4-7 times daily.
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